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The Bonferroni correction was used for each pairwise comparison. There are 13 prefecture-level cities in Jiangsu Province, which are divided into southern Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, and Zhenjiang , middle Nantong, Yangzhou, and Taizhou , and northern areas Xuzhou, Lianyungang, Huaian, Yancheng, and Suqian , according to geographic locations and levels of social economic development.

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The raw datasets were shown in Additional file 6. Out of 30, participants, 0. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection between participants from rural sites and those from urban sites 0. Overall, Parasite eggs were detected in fecal samples from participants.

The majority of positive cases had mild infections, and only four cases had moderate infections according to World Health Organization criteria [ 23 ] , including two cases of roundworm infection and two cases of hookworm infection. Protozoan cysts B. In addition, pinworm eggs E. Furthermore, three of the individuals who tested positive for helminth eggs were also infected with a second parasite roundworm and pinworm, roundworm and whipworm, hookworm and F. The parasites identified in human infections in this study are shown in Fig. Eight species of helminth were detected, and roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and whipworm accounted for The most common parasite found was hookworm 58 cases, There were also 35 cases There were four, three and eight species of helminth detected in Southern, Middle and Northern Jiangsu, respectively.

Human intestinal parasitic infection in different areas and at different times in Jiangsu, China. The rates of human infection in each prefecture-level city ranged from 0 to 2. The highest infection rate was in Suqian 2. To date, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic diseases has been carried out approximately every ten years in Jiangsu Province. A total of 17, participants from 69 rural sites were included in this study, and the total infection rate was 0.

A total of 12, participants from 48 urban sites were investigated in this study, and the total infection rate was 0. Only four cases of C. However, infection with C. A total of 5, wild freshwater fish about 30 species were investigated, and fish from four species were found to be infected with C. No metacercaria were detected in other types of fish, such as crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp. In total, 1, individual animals representing three types of reservoir host cats, dogs, and pigs were tested, and C.

A total of 16, In addition, A total of 11, Knowledge about C. In total, We carried out a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic infections in Jiangsu Province in eastern China. We found that the human infection rate has decreased from 9. These data provide a better understanding of the current prevalence and characteristics of intestinal parasitic infections in this region, which can be used to inform the future implementation of control measures.

Comprehensive measures including mass drug administration, renovation of the water supply and sewage systems, and health education were implemented in this province in the s.

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As of , approximately Furthermore, the government has continuously promoted the renovation of the water supply and sewage systems, especially in rural areas. In addition, a public sewage system was in place in Data from this study indicates that the implementation of these measures has had a marked effect on intestinal parasite control.

Previous studies have shown that factors such as gender, age, education, and occupation, may influence the rate of intestinal parasite infections. Our data show that female participants in rural areas had a higher rate of infection than men; this may be because they are more likely to engage in agricultural work and come into contact with soil [ 19 ]. We also observed a negative correlation between education, socioeconomic level, and infection rates.

This may be explained by healthier habits or better living conditions for participants who had high education levels or were from wealthy areas [ 24 , 25 ]. We did not observe any significant differences in infection rate between participants based on age and occupation. The mass migration of rural laborers into urban areas means that the population of rural areas of Jiangsu is primarily comprised of children and the elderly; these groups are at high risk for infection with intestinal parasites, especially STHs.

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Our data show that elderly individuals are more likely to be infected than individuals from other age groups. The most common parasite identified in this study was the hookworm A. It is reasonable to presume that this is due to the relatively low awareness of hookworm infection routes and the relatively common practice of peforming agricultural work barefoot, as reported in the questionnaire responses. Clonorchiasis is endemic in southern Guangdong and Guangxi Province and northeastern Heilongjiang and Jilin Province China, due to frequent consumption of raw fish and shrimp [ 12 , 13 ].

Our data confirmed this low rate of infection only four positive cases were detected ; however, other stages of the life cycle of C. Unfortunately, a relatively low level of knowledge about C. Therefore, there is a potentially significant risk of human infection in this province, and further health education and food safety risk monitoring should be carried out in the near future. Traditional pathogen-detecting methods are useful for field studies of parasitic infections as they are low-cost and simple to perform.

The sensitivity of these methods may be lower in the context of low infection rates and mild infections [ 26 , 27 ]. Thus, some cases may have been missed, even though two slides were prepared from each fecal sample for detection by the Kato-Katz method. Several molecular methods based on the detection of parasite-specific nucleotide sequences have been developed in recent years, and these methods have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity for detecting parasitic infections [ 28 , 29 , 30 ]. Disadvantages such as high cost and the need for a professional operator and specialized equipment, limit their usefulness in the field.

An alternative method with high sensitivity and specificity that is simple to perform and low-cost should be developed for parasitic infection surveillance in areas with low levels of infection such as Jiangsu. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in Jiangsu Province in eastern China has decreased from Next-step control measures should focus on parasitic infections in children and the elderly, health education promotion , food safety risk monitoring for food-borne parasites, and the development of alternative detection methods.

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article and its Additional files. Geohelminths: public health significance.

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J Infect Dev Ctries. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press; The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Parasit Vectors. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in China's sustained drive to eliminate neglected tropical diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population.

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Google Scholar. Global burden of human food-borne trematodiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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  • Not by drugs alone: the fight against parasitic helminths. World Health Forum. Immunol Today. Association of helminth infection with decreased reticulocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration in Thai falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. Clonorchiasis: a key foodborne zoonosis in China. A critical appraisal of control strategies for soil-transmitted helminths.

    Trends Parasitol. The control of hookworm infection in China. Exploring the relationship between access to water, sanitation and hygiene and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a demonstration of two recursive partitioning tools. Water, sanitation, hygiene, and soil-transmitted helminth infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. PLoS medicine. Emerging patterns of hookworm infection: influence of aging on the intensity of Necator infection in Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Clin Infect Dis. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

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